If you have or know of a paper or presentation you
believe may be appropriate for this section, please advise
Papers and Presentations
Collision Avoidance System
Mokkapati C, & Pascoe, R., March 16, 2005, 2005 ASME/IEEE Join
Rail Conference. This interesting presentation describes in detail
US&S's (Ansaldo Signal's) latest Positive Train Control Project it is
installing for the Alaska Railroad.
International Standards Process - Implications for the Transit Industry
Mcgean, Thomas J., January 27, 2005 International Best Practices
Workshop, Orland, FL. McGean's excellent .ppt presentation provides a
great summary of standards practices adopted by the US and internationally
and the many implications of these standards
for Development and Use of Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems
Federal Railroad Administration, Ref. 49 Code of Federal
Regulations Parts 209, 235 and 236, Released March 7, 2005. For US
railroads and suppliers of train control systems to US railroads, this is
something you need to know about and now conform to.
- VAL - Lille
Urban Community Metro's Experience (pdf)
KUHN, Francis, Institut National de Recherche Sur Les Transports
Et Leur Securite.
We recently received a copy of this excellent presentation
describing the highly successful fully automated VAL system in Lille France.
We understand Lille is one of few systems in the world operating with a
positive cash flow.
- The Life
and Times of PTC (ppt)
Lindsey, Ron, National Transportation
Safety Board conference on Positive Train Control, 02 March 2005.
Lindsey's presentation challenges a number of traditional views related to
PTC including safety & vitality, communications & bandwidth utilization,
and ZETA-TECH's business case analysis for FRA (see below).
- Radios for CBTC: Which Way to go? What
to Do? (pdf)
Sullivan, Tom, Railway Age Magazine C&S Buyers Guide 2005.
Describes the recent 10 year history of data radios used for for RF-CBTC
systems. Specific case histories, successes and failures are discussed along
with key issues such as cost, size, performance, obsolescence and where this
technology may be heading. Copies may be purchased from Railway Age +1
(212) 620-7200 for $14. The link above
is a draft of the original paper and incudes a helpful summary table at the
of the Business Benefits of Positive Train Control (.pdf)
ZETA-TECH Associates, 15 MAR 2004,
Prepared for the US Federal Railway Administration this report does not
consider the safety benefits but rather only the business case benefits of
Standards for CBTC & CBTC Radio Based Communications
Kuun, Ed, Alcatel Canada, 08 JUN 2004, APTA Rail Rail
Transit Conference Proceedings. This excellent paper describes in
considerable technical detail Alcatel's
pioneering use of IEEE 802.11 for Communications Based Train Control and
CCTV. This updated
paper (on Alcatel's web site) includes information on Hong Kong CCTV tests
and the Las Vegas Monorail adjustments of the train borne wireless signal
levels and issues with local wireless interference. A must read!
Rail Detector for CBTC and PTC Applications (.5
Grappone, Victor, Grappone Technologies, Inc,
02 DEC 2003. This
interesting presentation describes a novel means for detecting broken rails.
Patent Number 6,655,639 was issued 03DEC03.
Communication for Signaling in Mass Transit (1M
Lardennois, Regis, Siemens
Transportation Systems, 26 Sept, 2003. This presentation describes
Siemens efforts to develop advanced data radio systems for RATP and NYCT.
Communication - Securing 802.11 Safely
Alcatel Transportation Automation
Newsletter, Issue 4, pp
1-3, January 2004.
While the benefits are many, some remain skeptical about the viability of using
IEEE 802.11 wireless standards to transport safety and time critical data
for train control systems. This
excellent and interesting article discusses many important security issues
and appears to provide sound technical and mathematical justifications that it can be done
AATC Project Status Update (4M ppt)
Dupont, Jean-Luc, 5th International Conference on
Communications Based Train Control, Washington DC, May 8., 2003. This
excellent but very large presentation provides a great update
of San Francisco's Advanced Automatic Train Control CBTC system that
uses a unique radio ranging technique for locating trains.
Architecture Train Control™
Sullivan, Tom, 5th
International Conference on Communications Based Train Control, Washington,
DC, May 9, 2003.
Describes the many downsides of systems based upon
closed and proprietary interfaces and how using existing standards it is
simply a matter of "connecting the dots" to produce a
next generation OATC that is certain to be more cost-effective and likely to be
easier to build a safety case.
ERTMS/ETCS Become URTMS/UTCS?
Journal, February, 2003 Describes a big push by Europe to get China and
other countries interested in European standards for CBTC.
Network Communications - for Passenger Rail
Cartier, Paul, Engineering Manager, Technology Lanka (1.2M, PPT). Describes how Windows CE, PC-104, IEEE-1473-L, and TCP/IP were used to
monitor everything from GPS to hot bearings on Canada's VIA passenger
- On-Board Intelligent Transportation Systems
In Rail Transit
Given at the APTA Rail Conference in Baltimore, MD June, 2002
Amtrak's Acela(900k ppt) - Fred Nardelli, Amtrak; IEEE 1473-L(400k
ppt) - Tom Sullivan, TSD; IEEE-1473-T(4M, ppt) -
Bombardier; Telematics(6M, ppt) - Chris Holliday -STV and Fred Woolsey LTK.
1473-L Communications Protocol: Experience in Rail Transit, APTA
Paper, June 2002 (400k, pdf)
Sullivan, Tom. This paper provides an overview and update on
EIA 709 Test Results at SF BART & NYCT
June, 2002 (PPT)
Sullivan, Tom, Describes results of powerline communications tests
demonstrating cost effective remote sensing and control possibilities using
ANSI/EIA Standard 709 protocol.
Train Control Takes Off, Railway Age Magazine, May 2002 (Web)
Vantuono, William C., This excellent article summarizes all major
CBTC and Positive Train Control efforts in the US today. A must read for
anyone interested in CBTC. Contact Railway
Age to purchase this back issue.
Wayside Intercommunications: Future EN Standard
Albuquerque, PhD, Marcos, Presentation to LonMark Transportation
Task Group, San Jose, CA, USA, January, 2002. Describes issues relating to technology-based standards (such
as a 10-year gestation for TCN) and Working Group B14 developing a new CENELEC standard for vehicle-wayside
AATC/CBTC Safety Certification Program (Microsoft PPT)
Nishinaga, Gene, Presentation to California Public Utilities Commission,
September, 2001. Prepared by BART's Research & Development group,
this presentation describes its multi-volume safety documentation and the
modifications BART made to its vehicle train control system for its new CBTC
system. Specific challenges upgrading legacy safety-critical software
and how they were addressed by BART are graphically detailed.
Mathematical Theory of Communications (PDF)
Shannon, Claude E. Bell System
Technical Journal, July-Oct 1948.
This classic and ground-breaking work forms the basis for all digital
- ACSES Update
Hoelscher, Jim, 4th International Conference on Communications Based Train Control,
Washington, DC, May 2001.
A good overview of Alstom's Advanced Civil Speed Enforcement System
used by Amtrak on the US Northeast Corridor.
- IEEE Rail
Transit Vehicle Standards Update (Word)
Sullivan, Tom, 4th International Conference on Communications Based Train
control, Washington, DC, May of 2001.
An update describing work on a gateway
between IEEE 1473-L (LonWorks) and IEEE-1473-T (TCN), recent train networking trends and
likely future migration paths for IEEE
Koopman & Chakravarty, Carnegie Mellon University, An Adtranz &
Pennsylvania Infrastructure Technology Alliance Study, February, 2001.
Provides a general review of the error detection properties of TCN with input
from Dr. Hubert Kirrmann, "The father of TCN."
- CBTC Overview
(ZIP- Word & Excel)
Centolanzi, Patrick, Brooklyn Polytechnic University,
Patrick Centolanzi, a graduate student at BPU, provides a good overview on
CBTC, who makes it and who is using it. Emphasis is on the MTA New York City
Green Light in New York City
Vantuono, William, Railway Age Magazine, June 2000.
Look at the Leader's System (ppt)
April, 2000 presentation by NYCT's Director of New Technology
Train Control Geoff
- CBTC NYCT's Quest
for Interoperability (ppt)
Hubbs, Geoff & Rumsey, Alan F, APTA Rail Conference, St. Louis, MO,
June, 2000, Word
- Muni's CBTC System -
A Brave New World
DeVlieg, Patricia G,
APTA Rail Conference, St Louis, MO, June 2000
- Is FRA Pushing too Hard?
Sullivan, Tom, Railway Age, August 1999
- NYCT Gets
Sullivan, Tom, Mass Transit Jan/Feb 1999.
Summarizes why NYCT is migrating to CBTC and describes Kasten
Chase's pioneering work in developing an IP-based wireless Data Communications
System (DCS) for Alcatel, Alstom and Siemens. KC's
was the only DCS system successfully demonstrated during NYCT's CBTC
Culver trials in 1999.
- Developing Standards for New Technology Signal Systems
for Rail Transit Applications
Rumsey, Alan F., Comprail, Lisbon, Portugal, Sept.
- Safety Certification of Muni's Advanced Train Control
System: A view from the Trenches
DeVlieg, Patty & Rosen, Daniel, " APTA Rail Conference, San Diego,
Revolution in Serial
Train Lines (web)
Sullivan, Tom, Aug. 1998, Railway Age.
This Railway Age article reprint describes why there has been so much interest
in serial train lines recently. It also describes how NYCT achieved
interoperability between Bombardier and Kawasaki railway cars using by using
LonWorks (IEEE-1473-L) and EI/T1across Wabtec couplers.
- Developing Consensus Standards for Communications Based
Train Control Systems
Rumsey, Alan F., APTA Rail Conference, San Diego, June 1998.
- Standardization: Can it Be Achieved?
Sullivan, Tom, Railway Age Communications Based Train Control Conference,
Washington, DC., May, 1997
New Technology Signal Study (ppt)
Sullivan, Tom, APTA Rail Conference 1995. This PPT
presentation provides an overview of NYCT's massive CBTC program, its
justification for converting to CBTC, and its approach to CBTC
- NYCT's New
Technology Signals Program: Status Report (Word)
Sullivan, Tom, First International Conference on CBTC,
Washington, DC, May 1995.
This paper updates the prior year's APTA presentation below and contains
recommendations and answers questions from NYCT's Second International Peer
Review on CBTC.
- NYC Transit Status Report on New Technology Signals
Sullivan, Tom, APTA Rail Conference, Sacramento, CA, 1994.
This was NYCT's first paper to describe its detailed findings from its
multimillion dollar CBTC study. It contains recommendations and
answers to questions from NYCT's First International Peer Review on CBTC. This is a good place to
begin when researching the "whys" of CBTC technology. (NB: In 1994
use the term CBS - Communications Based Signaling to describe Communications
Based Train Control (CBTC.)
Transportation Systems Design - www.tsd.org
April 26, 2005