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EBBA-R, Prevention of Disease/Infection Transmission (Handling Body Fluids and Substances)

EBBA-R, Prevention of Disease/Infection Transmission (Handling Body Fluids and Substances)

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The body fluids and substances of all persons should be considered to contain potentially infectious agents. No distinction may be made between body fluids and substances from individuals with a known disease or infection and those from asymptomatic or undiagnosed individuals. Body fluids and substances include blood, semen, drainage from scrapes and cuts, feces, urine, vomitus, respiratory secretions (e.g., nasal discharge), and saliva.

The following infection control practices must be followed by all school district personnel in all situations involving potential contact with any body fluids and substances:

  1. Wear gloves when it is likely that hands will be in contact with body fluids or substances (blood, urine, feces, wound drainage, oral secretions, sputum, or vomitus). When possible, wear gloves while holding bloody noses and dealing with cuts that are bleeding heavily. Gloves should be kept in emergency response kits and be readily accessible at sites where students seek assistance for bloody noses or injuries.

    1. If gloves are not available, the use of towels or some other clean material as a barrier may provide some protection.

    2. When possible, have students wash off their own cuts and abrasions. After cuts are washed with soap and water, they should be covered with Band-Aids or bandages of the appropriate size. Where possible, students should be taught to hold their own bloody noses.

    3. Cuts and sores on your skin should be routinely covered to avoid infection.

  2. When possible, pocket face masks should be used for mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.

  3. Wash hands often and well with soap and water, paying particular attention to areas around and under fingernails and between fingers and scrubbing hands for at least 20 seconds.

  4. Clean up as soon as possible after any skin contact with any body fluid or substance.

    1. Wash skin with soap and water.

    2. Wash contaminated surfaces and non-disposable items with standard disinfectant. Use aerosol germicide cleaner.

    3. Wash contaminated clothing and linen in detergent with hot water.

    4. Contaminated tissues, paper towels, and other disposable items should be placed in plastic bags before being discarded.

  5. Use individual judgment in determining when barriers are needed for unpredictable situations. It is strongly recommended that barriers be used when contact with body fluids or substances is anticipated

Although COVID-19/Coronavirus has received a great deal of attention, there are several other communicable diseases of which staff members also should be aware. The following page includes a table listing communicable diseases and body substance sources of infection.

The more people a student or staff member interacts with, and the longer that interaction, the higher the risk of COVID-19 spread.

  1. COVID-19 is mostly spread by respiratory droplets released when people talk, cough, or sneeze. It is thought that the virus may spread to hands from a contaminated surface and then to the nose or mouth, causing infection.
  2. Personal prevention practices, such as handwashing, staying home when sick and environmental cleaning and disinfection are encouraged to reduce the spread of COVID-19.

  3. Cloth face coverings are meant to protect others in case the wearer is unknowingly infected by asymptomatic and are most essential in times when physical distancing is difficult.

Transmission Concerns - Body Substance Sources of Infectious Agents

Body Substance Source Organism of Concern Transmission
  • Cuts/abrasions
  • Nose bleeds
  • Menses
  • Contaminated needle
Hepatitis B Virus
Bloodstream inoculation through cuts and abrasions on hands

Direct blood stream inoculation
  • Incontinence
Hepatitis A virus
Salmonella bacteria
Shigella bacteria
C. difficile
**Oral inoculation from contaminated hands
*Respiratory secretions
  • Saliva
  • Nasal discharge
Common cold virus
Influenza virus
***Epstein-Barr virus
**Oral inoculation from contaminated hands
*Vomitus Gastrointestinal viruses (e.g. Norwalk virus) **Oral inoculation from contaminated hands
  • Incontinence
***Cytomegalovirus Bloodstream inoculation through cuts and abrasions on hands
Semen/vaginal fluids Hepatitis B virus
Gonococcus bacteria
Sexual contact (intercourse)

*There are no reported cases of HIV/AIDS suspected of having been transmitted by these sources. Wear gloves when exposed to body secretions, especially blood, urine, or feces.

**Hand washing is very important!

***These agents cause mononucleosis-like illness.

Adopted September 2, 2020